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环球教育 > 托福考试 > 托福写作 >托福写作课程之遣词造句的方法
托福写作课程之遣词造句的方法
2018-10-26 10:39:26| 白老师| 上海环球教育
想必小伙伴们看过很多大分作文,也明白托福作文想要写好并不容易,需要把握的点很多。

  想必小伙伴们看过很多大分作文,也明白托福作文想要写好并不容易,需要把握的点很多。

  托福写作考试想要拿到大分成绩,那么我们可以从评分标准中找到备考的方法以及提分的要点。本篇文章为大家整理到的是关于托福课程写作中 ,遣词造句的方法,供大家参考。

  一、 恰当

  所谓恰当,除了拼写准确外,主要是体现在搭配恰当上。例如,修饰名词的形容词和名词必须搭配恰当,动词和宾语必须搭配恰当。此外,写作时不能完全依赖翻译,尤其是词不达意的翻译。否则,很有可能出现了错误的搭配,导致考官无法理解,下面是一些常见的搭配错误:

  1. prompt &promote

  不少考生没法区分两个词prompt(促使)和promote(促进)之间的区别。我们通过两个句子来看一下。

  错误用法:There are three factors that promote people to go abroad.

  正确用法:There are three factors that prompt people to go abroad.

  2. enrich & make … prosper

  有些学生将enrich 理解为“使 富裕”,虽然不能说全错,但是现在主要的意思是“使 丰富”,如词组:enrich one’s experience。

  错误用法: Factories, which enrich the remote areas for example, may also lead to environmental problems.

  正确用法: Factories which make the remote areas prosper, for example, may also lead to environmental problems.

托福写作课程之遣词造句的方法

  3. train & develop

  表示“培养,养成”等意思时,容易不假思索地使用train,但是正确的词汇是develop, cultivate, nurture等。如:

  错误用法: The younger generations are hoped to train their independence as soon as possible.

  正确用法: The younger generations are hoped to develop their independence as soon as possible.

  二、有变化

  所谓有变化,是指考生在写作中,一个词只出现一次,第二次或后几次出现时用其他的词来替换。替换的方法有同义词,语法结构的变化,以及下义词等方法。下面小编将为考生们一一讲解。

  1. 同义词

  关于老年人的话题在新托福考试中曾经出现过,情况对“老年人”的多样表达:

  the elderly, the old, the aged, ageing population, the retired, senior citizens

  下面是新托福材料中,摘抄的两段话,非常形象的体现了一个词的多样表达,先看段,请大家注意“奇怪的”这个词在这一段话中的使用:

  Certainly no creature in the sea is odder than the common sea cucumber. All living creatures, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?

  又如,在下文中,四个词形式不同,但都是“显著的”意思。

  In 1900, the United States had only three cities with more than a million residents---New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. By 1930, it had ten giant metropolises. The newer ones experienced remarkable growth, which reflected basic changes in the economy. The population of Los Angeles(114000 in 1900) rose spectacularly in the early decades of the twentieth century, increasing a dramatic 1400 percent from 1900 to 1930. A number of circumstances contributed to the meteoric rise of Los Angeles.

  为了做到用词有变化,小编为大家列举了托福课程写作中常用的一些词的同义表达:

  同意v : accede to, agree with/on, approve of, consent to, subscribe to, side with

  认为v: consider, deem, figure, reckon, believe, think, say, hold, claim, assume, argue, maintain, contend, assert, state, declare

  影响n: impact, influence, effect, implication, affection

  因素n : factor, contributor, ingredient, element

  促进v: enhance, improve, promote, boost, advance, further

  培养v: cultivate, foster, develop, nurture

  重要的adj: important, critical, crucial, major, essential, vital, main, pivotal

  明显的adj: manifest, apparent, evident, obvious

  大量的: myriads of, a host of, a multitude of, a great deal of, a vast number of(+cn) , a vast amount of (+un), a plenty of, a wide range of, a great variety of

  2. 语法结构的变化

  语法的变化指的是,将一个词从语法结构上做一个变化来体现多样性,常见的有词性变化,从句和分词的转变等等。请看下面的例子:

  energy consumption = energy which is consumed = energy consumed

  the production of ozone-damaging gases

  = the amount of gases which are produced to damage the ozone layer

  3. 下义词

  所谓下义关系,亦称种属关系,是指几个单词的词义属于另一个词的词义范畴。充分利用下义关系是强化单词记忆的好方法,这在复习阶段尤其如此。

  1). Color

  其下义词有:white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, orange等;

  2). Subject

  的下义词有:maths, physics, chemistry, politics, Chinese, biology等;

  3). profession

  其下义词有:doctor, teacher, accountant, president, lawyer等;

  4). means of transportation

  其下义词有:car, bus, subway, bicycle, ship等。

  以上介绍的三种方法对考生的同意转换能力提供参考。

  三、具体表达

  中国学生对词汇的运用或观点的表达都喜欢用笼统的概括的表达方法,然而这和新托福的用词要求是不吻合的。外国人在表示任何一个对象的时候都是非常具体的。

  1). 笼统:This room is good.

  具体:The room is clean, spacious and well-decorated.

  很空洞,说完后不会给人留下任何印象,是一句废话,然而第二句胜在具体,能够将房间具体好在哪些方面反映出来,这也是新托福写作所要求的具体表达。

  2). 笼统: It is said that a magnificent building was destroyed yesterday.

  具体: The local news says that the University Inn was burnt down last night.

  笼统在两个词,一是magnificent,二是was destroyed,如果将这个楼和被破坏的具体方式体现出来,会更生动形象。

  以上是环球教育小编给大家介绍的托福写作课程之遣词造句的方法,希望能给备考的同学提供帮助。更多关于托福课程的相关资讯,请点击咨询上海环球教育官网。咨询电话:400-820-0602


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